Located in the center of the Old World, Istanbul is one of the world's great cities with its historical monuments and magnificent scenic beauties. It is the only city in the world which spreads over two continents: it lies at a point where Asia and Europe are separated by a narrow strait - the Bosphorus.

The Greatness of Istanbul

Istanbul is a metropolis preserving its significance in every period of history. It has hosted different cultures throughout history and brought together the east and the west. The magnificent structures of Byzantine and Ottoman Empires await travelers.

Today, Istanbul is a world capital as it was in the past. The city was selected as the European Capital of Culture in 2010.

Istanbul, which has a border with the Black Sea in the north, the Marmara Sea in the south and the Istanbul Bosphorus in the middle, has been the eye of many civilizations due to its location throughout the ages.

The Bosphorus in the middle of the city is the natural divide between Asia and Europe. Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Bosphorus and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridges in the Bosphorus connect the two sides of the city. Besides these three bridges, Istanbul is also the only way to reach the Mediterranean and other open seas for Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. It is a non-alternative route for other countries except Russia, which has a coast to the Baltic Sea and the North Ocean.


The ancient city of Istanbul on the banks of the Bosphorus has been home to the Byzantine, Latin and Ottoman empires and today the Republic of Turkey is the most important city for economic and cultural reasons. The city of Istanbul, divided into two by the Strait, is one of the few intercontinental cities of the world.

Early History of Istanbul

Istanbul has a history of over 2,500 years, and ever since its establishment on this strategic junction of lands and seas, the city has been a crucial trade center.

The historic city of Istanbul is situated on a peninsula flanked on three sides by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn. It has been the capital of three great empires, the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman empires. For more than 1,600 years over 120 emperors and sultans ruled the world from here. No other city in the world can claim such a distinction.

During its development, the city was enlarged four times, each time the city walls being rebuilt further to the west.

Surrounded by 5th-century Roman city walls and stretching over seven hills, Istanbul is adorned by the masterpieces of Turkish art, the great mosques of the Sultans that crown the hills. The city presents an exquisite, majestic and serene silhouette from all directions. The Golden Horn, which is a very secure natural harbor, has played a significant role in the development of the city.

Fortune provided such advantages to Istanbul as a site at a junction where the main overland routes reach the sea, an easily defensible peninsula, an ideal climate, a rich and generous nature, control of the strategic Bosphorus, and a central geographical position in the ancient world.

As a capital of empires, the city was not only an administrative but also a religious center. The Patriarchate of Eastern Christians has been headquartered here since its establishment, and the largest early churches and monasteries of the Christian world rose in this city on top of the pagan temples. Within a century after the city was conquered, it was enriched with mosques, palaces, schools, baths and other architectural monuments that gave it a Turkish character, while some of the existing churches in ruins were repaired, altered and converted into mosques.

Between the 16th century when the Ottoman sultans acquired themselves the title of the “Caliph of Islam” and 1924, the first year of the Republic, Istanbul was also the headquarter of the Caliphate. Many Jews built themselves a new and happy life after they were rescued from Spain by the Turks in the 15th century. Istanbul has always been a city of tolerance where mosques, churches, and synagogues existed side by side. The city was adorned with a large number of dazzling and impressive works even during the decline of the Ottomans.

During this time, the influence of European art made itself felt in the new palaces. The northern slopes of the Golden Horn, Galata and Beyoglu districts assumed a European character. Even when the Empire, which was a party to World War I, collapsed and the young Republic that replaced it moved the capital to Ankara, Istanbul did not lose its significance.

Later Growth of Istanbul

The haphazard development that began in the years following World War II and accelerated in the 1950’s has unfortunately had a negative impact on the fabric of the old city. Old wooden houses disappeared rapidly, concrete buildings proliferated. Istanbul experienced a population explosion due to immigration, and within a very short period, it expanded far beyond the historical city walls. The areas inside the walls were invaded by workshops, mills, and offices. Unfortunately, even the new roadways could not solve the traffic problems, and the inadequacy of the infrastructure gave rise to a sea pollution problem, starting from the Golden Horn.

With the initiatives for saving the city in the 1980s, Istanbul embarked on a process of restructuring on a scale unseen in its history. Thousands of buildings along the Golden Horn were demolished to make way for a green belt on its shores; parks and gardens were built on the land claimed by filling up the beaches of the Sea of Marmara. In order to prevent sea pollution drainage systems were completed and physical and biological wastewater treatment plants were erected. In addition, the use of natural gas for heating has considerably reduced air pollution.


Recent Developments in Istanbul

Efforts are continuing for the restoration of the Roman city walls and Beyoglu. The main artery was rescued by building a new avenue. Improvements were made in the general cleaning, maintenance, garbage collection fields and these services are now at Western European standards. Ring roads cross the Bosphorus over three suspension bridges to connect the two continents. The European side has now a fast tramway system and a subway. Furthermore, comfort and speed have been ensured in sea transportation with the hydrofoil terminals built on the seashores. All industrial establishments on the historic peninsula have been moved to new facilities in the suburbs, and the new international bus terminal has reduced traffic intensity. The old jail and the first large concrete building of the city were given over to tourism and converted into 5-star hotels.

The city is growing dynamically and developing at full speed on an east-west axis along the shores of the Marmara.

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