Early History

Although the Aegean Basin was formerly known as a built-up area, the historical remains, documents and evidence found give the first information about between 3000-1200 BC.

We can get quite detailed information about these ages from the epics of “Ilyada” and “Odyssey” that tell stories regarding the Trojan War. The oldest peoples of the region are the tribes immigrated from the eastern Anatolian, Crete and Peloponnese Peninsula. The whole Aegean basin is often upset with such migrations and invasions. The most brutal and destructive of these invasions is the Dor influences from the north. The first half of the year was Pelasglard, a farmer. The later Akas were warrior ethnic groups. The Anatolian side of the Aegean was the Ionians and the Trojans. Today’s Yunan (Greek) name comes from this Ionian word.

The Aegean civilization is the common civilization of an ancient people, a blend of races and tribes, especially the Western Anatolian peoples. The civilizations that developed in the Aegean Basin from the 30th century to the 6th century can be examined in four stages or sections: Minos (Crete), Cyclades (islands), Miken (peninsula) and Ionian (Western Anatolian) civilizations. Minos (Crete) civilization: It takes its name from the kings of Crete.

Since all Anatolia is an ancient civilized region where the First Age civilizations are intermingled, Western Anatolian civilizations can not be abstracted from the Hittite, Phrygian and Lydian civilizations. Mysia and Karya can be counted as a part of the Ionian civilization. However, it is generally desired to describe Eolian, Ionia and Troia, which are the Aegean coastal sections of Western Anatolia. Homer’s Iliad Legend’s original name is “Ilias”. Ilias is the legend of Ilion. Ion, this is exactly Ilion.

In fact, the western Anatolian civilizations must include all the First Age cultural centers such as Ephesus, Milas and İzmir from Halikarnassos to Troy, even to Meric, after 6th century AD. Ilyada is not only about Troy, but also about all the Ionians who run to the aid of the Trojans. Troy (Canakkale / Hisarlik) excavations give examples of the period between 3000-600 BC in this region. The excavations reveal over nine floors of city remains. The walls and timber-framed houses of the first Troy, with mud-brick walls on the stone foundation, and the walls and palaces of the Second Troia bear witness to this civilization.


Hellenistic Civilization

The Aegean is the name given to the civilization developed around Macedonia, Anatolia, Bergama and Alexandria during the historical period between the disintegration of the Great Alexander Empire and the spread of the Roman Empire.

The ancient Greek culture and civilization that lived the golden age during the 6th and 5th centuries lost dominance initially because of civil war, and then the invasion of Alexander in the late 4th century.

In the second half of the 4th century BC, there were other great civilizations that lived in this vast area of Alexander’s conquest. These were ancient Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Med and Persian civilizations.

These ancient civilizations of the East merged with the civilizations which Alexander took from the Aegean and formed the Hellenistic civilization. After the death of Alexander (323 BC) the large empire was divided among its commanders.

Until Roman rule, this hybrid civilization in Hellenistic kingdoms showed slightly different developments. The most prominent features of this period were the cultures of Bergama, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Lycia, Cilicia and Alexandria.

The libraries of Bergama and Alexandria were surprisingly wealthy even for our time. During this period, wealth and splendor came to the forefront in construction, in the graves and in all kinds of ornaments. Culture and literature have reached as high level as their former vitality.

Hellenistic civilization remained not only in the East, but also in the west as far as Siracusa and Rome, and the Roman Empire became the heir of this civilization.

History & Culture
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